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鉁侫 collection of useful .htaccess snippets.

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Oct 28, 2018

Security / Exclude URL from Redirection

Exclude URL from Redirection

This snippet allows you to exclude a URL from redirection. For example, if you have redirection rules setup but want to exclude robots.txt so search engines can access that URL as expected.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^robots.txt - [L]

Aug 21, 2015

Rewrite and Redirection / Redirect an Entire Site

Redirect an Entire Site

Redirect 301 / http://newsite.com/

This way does it with links intact. That is www.oldsite.com/some/crazy/link.html will become www.newsite.com/some/crazy/link.html. This is extremely helpful when you are just 鈥渕oving鈥 a site to a new domain. Source

Rewrite and Redirection / Redirect Using RedirectMatch

Redirect Using RedirectMatch

RedirectMatch 301 /subdirectory(.*) http://www.newsite.com/newfolder/$1
RedirectMatch 301 ^/(.*).htm$ /$1.html
RedirectMatch 301 ^/200([0-9])/([^01])(.*)$ /$2$3
RedirectMatch 301 ^/category/(.*)$ /$1
RedirectMatch 301 ^/(.*)/htaccesselite-ultimate-htaccess-article.html(.*) /htaccess/htaccess.html
RedirectMatch 301 ^/(.*).html/1/(.*) /$1.html$2
RedirectMatch 301 ^/manual/(.*)$ http://www.php.net/manual/$1
RedirectMatch 301 ^/dreamweaver/(.*)$ /tools/$1
RedirectMatch 301 ^/z/(.*)$ http://static.askapache.com/$1

Source

Rewrite and Redirection / Alias Paths to Script

Alias Paths to Script

FallbackResource /index.fcgi

This example has an index.fcgi file in some directory, and any requests within that directory that fail to resolve a filename/directory will be sent to the index.fcgi script. It鈥檚 good if you want baz.foo/some/cool/path to be handled by baz.foo/index.fcgi (which also supports requests to baz.foo) while maintaining baz.foo/css/style.css and the like. Get access to the original path from the PATH_INFO environment variable, as exposed to your scripting environment.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^$ index.fcgi/ [QSA,L]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ index.fcgi/$1 [QSA,L]

This is a less efficient version of the FallbackResource directive (because using mod_rewrite is more complex than just handling the FallbackResource directive), but it鈥檚 also more flexible.

Apr 09, 2015

Rewrite and Redirection / Remove Trailing Slash

Remove Trailing Slash

This snippet will redirect paths ending in slashes to their non-slash-terminated counterparts (except for actual directories), e.g. http://www.example.com/blog/ to http://www.example.com/blog. This is important for SEO, since it鈥檚 recommended to have a canonical URL for every page.

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} (.+)/$
RewriteRule ^ %1 [R=301,L]

Source

Feb 26, 2015

Miscellaneous / Allow Cross-Domain Fonts

Allow Cross-Domain Fonts

CDN-served webfonts might not work in Firefox or IE due to CORS. This snippet solves the problem.

<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    <FilesMatch "\.(eot|otf|ttc|ttf|woff|woff2)$">
        Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
    </FilesMatch>
</IfModule>

Source (猸3k)

Feb 23, 2015

Security / Block Visitors by Referrer

Block Visitors by Referrer

This denies access for all users who are coming from (referred by) a specific domain. Source

RewriteEngine on
# Options +FollowSymlinks
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} somedomain\.com [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} anotherdomain\.com
RewriteRule .* - [F]

Performance / Prevent Framing the Site

Prevent Framing the Site

This prevents the website to be framed (i.e. put into an iframe tag), when still allows framing for a specific URI.

SetEnvIf Request_URI "/starry-night" allow_framing=true
Header set X-Frame-Options SAMEORIGIN env=!allow_framing

Miscellaneous / Serve WebP Images

Serve WebP Images

If WebP images are supported and an image with a .webp extension and the same name is found at the same place as the jpg/png image that is going to be served, then the WebP image is served instead.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_ACCEPT} image/webp
RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}/$1.webp -f
RewriteRule (.+)\.(jpe?g|png)$ $1.webp [T=image/webp,E=accept:1]

Source (猸198)

Feb 16, 2015

Miscellaneous / Disable Internet Explorer Compatibility View

Disable Internet Explorer Compatibility View

Compatibility View in IE may affect how some websites are displayed. The following snippet should force IE to use the Edge Rendering Engine and disable the Compatibility View.

<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    BrowserMatch MSIE is-msie
    Header set X-UA-Compatible IE=edge env=is-msie
</IfModule>

Feb 12, 2015

Rewrite and Redirection / Force non-www in a Generic Way

Force non-www in a Generic Way

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.
RewriteCond %{HTTPS}s ^on(s)|off
RewriteCond http%1://%{HTTP_HOST} ^(https?://)(www\.)?(.+)$
RewriteRule ^ %1%3%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]

Feb 11, 2015

Miscellaneous / Force Downloading

Force Downloading

Sometimes you want to force the browser to download some content instead of displaying it.

<Files *.md>
    ForceType application/octet-stream
    Header set Content-Disposition attachment
</Files>

Now there is a yang to this yin:

Feb 10, 2015

Miscellaneous / Auto UTF-8 Encode

Auto UTF-8 Encode

Your text content should always be UTF-8 encoded, no?

# Use UTF-8 encoding for anything served text/plain or text/html
AddDefaultCharset utf-8

# Force UTF-8 for a number of file formats
AddCharset utf-8 .atom .css .js .json .rss .vtt .xml

Source (猸3k)

Miscellaneous / Prevent Downloading

Prevent Downloading

Sometimes you want to force the browser to display some content instead of downloading it.

<FilesMatch "\.(tex|log|aux)$">
    Header set Content-Type text/plain
</FilesMatch>

Feb 09, 2015

Rewrite and Redirection / Force HTTPS Behind a Proxy

Force HTTPS Behind a Proxy

Useful if you have a proxy in front of your server performing TLS termination.

RewriteCond %{HTTP:X-Forwarded-Proto} !https
RewriteRule (.*) https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI}

Rewrite and Redirection / Alias a Single Directory

Alias a Single Directory

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^source-directory/(.*) /target-directory/$1 [R=301,L]

Rewrite and Redirection / Alias 鈥淐lean鈥 URLs

Alias 鈥淐lean鈥 URLs

This snippet lets you use 鈥渃lean鈥 URLs -- those without a PHP extension, e.g. example.com/users instead of example.com/users.php.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule ^([^.]+)$ $1.php [NC,L]

Source

Security / Deny Access to Hidden Files and Directories

Deny Access to Hidden Files and Directories

Hidden files and directories (those whose names start with a dot .) should most, if not all, of the time be secured. For example: .htaccess, .htpasswd, .git, .hg...

RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -d [OR]
RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule "(^|/)\." - [F]

Alternatively, you can just raise a 鈥淣ot Found鈥 error, giving the attacker no clue:

RedirectMatch 404 /\..*$

Miscellaneous / Switch to Another PHP Version

Switch to Another PHP Version

If you鈥檙e on a shared host, chances are there are more than one version of PHP installed, and sometimes you want a specific version for your website. The following snippet should switch the PHP version for you.

AddHandler application/x-httpd-php56 .php

# Alternatively, you can use AddType
AddType application/x-httpd-php56 .php

Jan 27, 2015

Rewrite and Redirection

What we are doing here is mostly collecting useful snippets from all over the interwebs (for example, a good chunk is from Apache Server Configs (猸3k)) into one place. While we鈥檝e been trying to credit where due, things might be missing. If you believe anything here is your work and credits should be given, let us know, or just send a PR.

Note: It is assumed that you have mod_rewrite installed and enabled.

Rewrite and Redirection / Force www

Force www

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^example\.com [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.example.com/$1 [L,R=301,NC]

Rewrite and Redirection / Force www in a Generic Way

Force www in a Generic Way

RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTPS}s ^on(s)|
RewriteRule ^ http%1://www.%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]

This works for any domain. Source

Rewrite and Redirection / Force non-www

Force non-www

It鈥檚 still open for debate whether www or non-www is the way to go, so if you happen to be a fan of bare domains, here you go:

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.example\.com [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://example.com/$1 [L,R=301]

Rewrite and Redirection / Force HTTPS

Force HTTPS

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !on
RewriteRule (.*) https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI}

# Note: It鈥檚 also recommended to enable HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
# on your HTTPS website to help prevent man-in-the-middle attacks.
# See https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Security/HTTP_strict_transport_security
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    # Remove "includeSubDomains" if you don't want to enforce HSTS on all subdomains
    Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000;includeSubDomains"
</IfModule>

Rewrite and Redirection / Force Trailing Slash

Force Trailing Slash

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /+[^\.]+$
RewriteRule ^(.+[^/])$ %{REQUEST_URI}/ [R=301,L]

Security / Deny All Access

Deny All Access

## Apache 2.2
Deny from all

## Apache 2.4
# Require all denied

But wait, this will lock you out from your content as well! Thus introducing...

Security / Deny All Access Except Yours

Deny All Access Except Yours

## Apache 2.2
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

## Apache 2.4
# Require all denied
# Require ip xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx is your IP. If you replace the last three digits with 0/12 for example, this will specify a range of IPs within the same network, thus saving you the trouble to list all allowed IPs separately. Source

Now of course there's a reversed version:

Security / Allow All Access Except Spammers'

Allow All Access Except Spammers'

## Apache 2.2
Order deny,allow
Deny from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
Deny from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxy

## Apache 2.4
# Require all granted
# Require not ip xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
# Require not ip xxx.xxx.xxx.xxy

Security / Disable Directory Browsing

Disable Directory Browsing

Options All -Indexes

Security / Disable Image Hotlinking

Disable Image Hotlinking

RewriteEngine on
# Remove the following line if you want to block blank referrer too
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$

RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^https?://(.+\.)?example.com [NC]
RewriteRule \.(jpe?g|png|gif|bmp)$ - [NC,F,L]

# If you want to display a 鈥渂locked鈥 banner in place of the hotlinked image,
# replace the above rule with:
# RewriteRule \.(jpe?g|png|gif|bmp) http://example.com/blocked.png [R,L]

Security / Disable Image Hotlinking for Specific Domains

Disable Image Hotlinking for Specific Domains

Sometimes you want to disable image hotlinking from some bad guys only.

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} ^https?://(.+\.)?badsite\.com [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} ^https?://(.+\.)?badsite2\.com [NC,OR]
RewriteRule \.(jpe?g|png|gif|bmp)$ - [NC,F,L]

# If you want to display a 鈥渂locked鈥 banner in place of the hotlinked image,
# replace the above rule with:
# RewriteRule \.(jpe?g|png|gif|bmp) http://example.com/blocked.png [R,L]

Security / Password Protect a Directory

Password Protect a Directory

First you need to create a .htpasswd file somewhere in the system:

htpasswd -c /home/fellowship/.htpasswd boromir

Then you can use it for authentication:

AuthType Basic
AuthName "One does not simply"
AuthUserFile /home/fellowship/.htpasswd
Require valid-user

Security / Password Protect a File or Several Files

Password Protect a File or Several Files

AuthName "One still does not simply"
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile /home/fellowship/.htpasswd

<Files "one-ring.o">
Require valid-user
</Files>

<FilesMatch ^((one|two|three)-rings?\.o)$>
Require valid-user
</FilesMatch>

Miscellaneous / Turn eTags Off

Turn eTags Off

By removing the ETag header, you disable caches and browsers from being able to validate files, so they are forced to rely on your Cache-Control and Expires header. Source

<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    Header unset ETag
</IfModule>
FileETag None

Miscellaneous / Set PHP Variables

Set PHP Variables

php_value <key> <val>

# For example:
php_value upload_max_filesize 50M
php_value max_execution_time 240

Miscellaneous / Custom Error Pages

Custom Error Pages

ErrorDocument 500 "Houston, we have a problem."
ErrorDocument 401 http://error.example.com/mordor.html
ErrorDocument 404 /errors/halflife3.html